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Yıldırım  Beyazıt ( 30.7.1356)- (5.3.1400)

Osmanlı Padişahı


Osmanlı Sultanlarının Dördüncüsü



Görev Süresi: 1389-1402
Babası: Murad-ı Hüdavendigar
Annesi: Gülçiçek Hatun
Doğumu: 1360
Vefatı: 1403



Sultan Murad-ı Hüdavendigar'ın oğlu.1360 yılında Gülçiçek Hatun'dan doğdu. Küçük yaştan itibaren zamanın seçkin alimlerinden ilim öğrendi. Değerli komutanlardan askerlik, sevk ve idare derslerini gördü.

1381 yılında devlet idaresinde yetişmesi için Kütahya'ya vali tayin edildi. 1389'da haçlı ordusu ile yapılan Birinci Kosova sSvaşı'na katılarak büyük kahramanlık gösterdi. Babası Sultan Murat bu savaşta şehit edilince, Osmanlı tahtına geçti.

İlk olarak Sırbistan işlerini yoluna koyan Yıldırım Beyazıt bu sırada kendisine karşı ittifak eden Anadolu Beylikleri üzerine yürüdü. Süratle hareket ederek Aydınoğulları, Saruhanoğulları, Germiyanoğulları, Menteşe ve Hamidoğulları beyliklerini ortadan kaldırdı (1390). Karamanoğulları beyliğini itaat altına aldı (1391).

1391 yılında İstanbul'u muhasara etti. 7 aylık bir kuşatmadan sonra şehirde bir Türk mahallesi kurulması, bir cami yapılması ve yıllık verginin artırılması şartıyla anlaşma yaptı.

1392 yılında Kastamonu üzerine yürüyerek, Candaroğlu topraklarını ele geçirdi. 1394'te Selanik ve Yenişehir'i (Mora) alan Osmanlı orduları, Teselya ve Arnavutluk'a kadar ilerledi.

Yıldırım Beyazıt'ın 1395'te İstanbul'u ikinci defa muhasarası yeni bir Haçlı Ordusu'nun hareketine yol açtı. Bütün Avrupa milletlerinden meydana gelen Haçlılar, Osmanlılar'a ait Niğbolu kalesini kuşattı. Hızla gelen Yıldırım Beyazıt Haçlılar'ı Niğbolu kalesi önünde ağır bir bozguna uğrattı (25 Eylül 1396).

1397'de İstanbul'u üçüncü defa kuşattı. Bizans'ın denizle bağlantısını kesmek için Anadolu Hisarı'nı inşa ettirdi.

Yıldırım Beyazıt, 1398'de Karaman ve 1399'da Dulkadirli topraklarına girdi. Topraklarını kaybeden bu Anadolu beyleri Timur'a sığındı ve onu Osmanlı sultanına karşı kışkırttı. Timur'dan kaçan Karakoyunlu ve Cezayir beyleri de Yıldırım Beyazıt'ı Timur'a karşı tahrik etti.

Bu tahrikler, iki büyük Türk hakanını Ankara'da karşı karşıya getirdi. Çubuk Ovası'nda yapılan savaş sonunda Osmanlı Ordusu, mağlubiyete uğradı. Yıldırım Beyazıt esir düştü (28 Temmuz 1402).

7 ay sonra kederinden ve nefes darlığından 44 yaşında vefat etti (1403).

Timur Han ölüm haberini alınca: "Yazık oldu, büyük bir mücahidi kaybettik." demekten kendini alamadı.







English Biography

YILDIRIM BEYAZIT

He is the Ottoman Sultan who is reputed for bravery and titled Yildirim (Thunderbolt) because of his unique speed in wars. He was born in Bursa in 1360. He acceded to the throne in the battlefield where Kosovo victory was won, because of his father Murat Hudavendigar's falling martyr. He besieged Istanbul and constructed Anatolian fort. He lost the war against Timur in the vicinity of Ankara and was taken captive. He died of his grief on 4 March 1403 in Akşehir. His tomb is in Bursa.

He was called Yildirim because of his unique speed in battlefields even when he was a prince. There was no other sultans in Ottoman dynasty who rode horses faster than he did. He grew up with Murat Hudavendigar, a great conqueror, and was very useful in wars he took part together with him. As a matter of fact, his great heroism and superior administrative power commanding his units in Kosovo Pitched Battle played an important role in the victory. His father Murat Hudavendigar was killed with a dagger by an injured Serb in the battlefield, and thus he became sultan there.

Yildirim Beyazit is the first ruler to start brother murdering in Ottoman dynasty by choking his brother Yakup Çelebi, who was loved by people and soldiers very much and who did not know his father's death, to his tent. Some say he did it because of his father's will and some that on encouragement of his environment.

Yildirim, after consolidating Turkish dominance over Balkan peninsula with Kosovo victory, turned his eyes to Istanbul. After conquering Anatolian side of Black Sea Strait, he established Anatolian Turkish unity. He constructed the first Turkish castle on the strait, that is, the Anatolian fort. Then he besieged Istanbul. The siege lasted for eight months. Christian world, seeing that Byzantium was about to fall, stood for another crusade. Crusaders, advancing along Danube with a strong army, surrounded an important border fortress of Turks, Nigbolu.

Yildirim Beyazit, being informed that Nigbolu was besieged by a very crowded enemy army, lifted Istanbul siege and ran with a great speed to Nigbolu. The Nigbolu castle was resisting under command of Dogan Bey. Yildirim Beyazit, who was known for his bravery, wore Hungarian Spahi clothes and passed the enemy lines by himself and came before the gate of the castle:

- Bre Dogan, bre Dogan!... Dogan Bey first thought that this was an enemy trick, but then knew that that was the sultan's voice. When he ran to the bastion with excitement, he saw that unique horse despite the darkness of the night. Yildirim asked:
- How are you, bre Dogan?.
- The enemy presses from land and river, but the bastions are strong, and provisions are abundant. And now that our sultan came, it is not possible that Nigbolu falls... Yıldırım said:
- We are here, resist for one or two days.

The crusaders seeing the white horse and the stranger with Hungarian spahi clothes, tried to attack that stranger. But they could not catch Yildirim's horse...

On 25 September 1396, Yildirim Beyazit started a merciless attack on the very crowded Crusader army surrounding Nigbolu. The bloody war did not last for too long. Yildirim destroyed that great army with his famous claw plan famous in history.

Fearless Jean, leading Crusader army said after being taken captive by Turks that:
- I swear I will never hold my weapon against Turks again. Yildirim, having heard that, called him: I pardon you for your oath. Go. Go get all of the powers of Christendom to save your honor. Thus give me new opportunities to raise my grandeur and glory, and released him. A big storm broke out in the East in 1402.

After Tamerlane eliminated Altınordu state with his great army, invaded Iran and entered Arab provinces. The only state against Tamerlane remained was Ottomans. Both were Muslim Turk states. However, these conqueror Turkish rulers could not agree. They insulted each other because of Ahmet Celayir and Kara Yusuf. The enmity between Yildirim and Tamerlane resulted in Anakar War.

The two Turkish armies started a bloody war in Çubuk plain on a hot day of July. First, Yildirim's spahis rocked Timur armies. However, when Timur rode elephants on them, the course of the war changed. At that time, Anatolian soldiers took the part of Timur due to Anatolian Beys betrayal. The betrayal panicked Yildirim armies. The sultan, seeing that bad situation, withdrew to the hill he established his headquarters and went on resisting the enemy. Timur forces surrounded Yildirim in Çataltepe. He had only 300 soldiers with him. Yildirim took an axe when his sword was broken. He killed everyone drawing near.

The sun, which rose with golden lights in the morning was not setting behind the purple mountains of Çubuk Plain. Everywhere was getting dark. The bodies were lying on the ground like yellow roses. Yildirim rode his horse toward northwest of the hill at that time. However, everywhere was surrounded by enemy soldiers. Yildirim was tired after swinging his sword all day in the battle field and exhausted because of hunger and thirst. While he was climbing down from the steep and stony slope near Mahmudoglu village, he fell down with his horse because his horse's leg went between some stones. At that time, Timur's soldiers stood. Yildirim, having a bloody axe, with torn clothes and dusty face drew a portrait of heroism. He stared at Semerkandi soldiers with his fiery eyes, and cried out:

Do what you are supposed to do!
Cağatay Khan Mahmudoğlu said:
Come here... You are the guest of Timur-u Gürgani.

Yildirim was taken captive, and Tamerlane drew back to his tent. After having heard congratulations of his commanders for his victory, he started to play chess with his son Şahruh. At night, Yildirim, who was taken captive, was brought to Timur's tent. Timur stood, showed him a place and showed respect. Yildirim, seeing that Timur smiled for a while during the conversation, shouted in anger:
It is bad to make fun of a man Allah rendered unfortunate.
Tamerlane replied:
I am laughing because Allah left the world to a lamed like me and a blind like you... Then he asked Yildirim the following question:
What would you do to my soldiers if you defeated us?
I would put all to sword.
But I thought good. So God gave me the victory. You thought bad. God gave you the bad. Therefore, I will not do anything other than goodness to you and your members. Be at ease!

Then he prepared a dining table for Yildirim. They all ate yogurt together in the same table. Some time later, they found and took his son Musa Celebi. The next day Tamerlane launched further movement toward Anatolia. The soldiers of Timur were looting everywhere. Even one day they attacked boys with Koran in their hands with horsemen and killed all. They went into Bursa palace and looted the treasury completely.

After some time, when Tamerlane went to Izmir to invade, he took Yildirim with him. Upon Izmir victory, Tamerlane arranged a perfect feast. He intended to give a lesson to Yildirim with this feast. How could Yildirim marry a Christian girl although he was a Muslim ruler? Timur could not stand this. He made Princess Olivera distribute wine in this feast. Yildirim, seeing his lover serving to the drunks, he felt the greatest pain of captivity. His whole endurance ended. He stood up and insulted Tamerlane.

After that, Yildirim started to wait for being beheaded. But that was not the outcome. The next day, he was sent to Akşehir on Timur's order. But Yildirim had lost all his desire to live. He began to suffer spiritually. His country was routed, his sons were lost at the battlefield, and his treasury was looted. How could he live any more?

He took out the ring he always had on his finger. The ring gem hid an effective poison under it. He swallowed it and died. That hero ruler of Ottomans committed suicide. Timur, after this bloody disaster, did not remain in Anatolia and turned back to Semerkand. Turkish nation, who had the capacity to establish state, organized again immediately and maintained existence of their state. They had a long period of 624 years of domination under the name of Ottomans. However, Tamerlane's state died with him.





HABER

Yıldırım Bayazıt'ın torunları Nijer'de Osmanlı'yı yaşatıyor!
Fazlı Mert
21 Ekim 2013

Afrika’nın en fakir ülkelerinden biri olan Nijer’in Agadez bölgesinde yaşayanlar kendilerini Osmanlı torunu kabul ediyor.

Bölge halkı hâlâ Osmanlı gelenek ve göreneklerine göre yaşıyor. 14. yüzyıl sonlarında Nijer kabileleri arasında liderlik kavgası başlayınca kabileler Osmanlı’yı ziyarete gider. Dönemin Padişahı Yıldırım Beyazıt, Afrika kökenli cariyesinden olma şehzadesi Yunus’u Agadez bölgesine sultan olarak tayin eder. O günden sonra sultanlık babadan oğula geçer. Şimdiki Sultan İbrahim Oumarou, Yunus Sultan’ın soyundan geliyor. Nijer’in başkenti Niamey’e büyükelçi olarak atanan Hasan Ulusoy, Agadezlerle ilgili bilimsel çalışma yapılması gerektiğini söylüyor. Nijer büyükelçisi Ulusoy, rivayetlerin doğrulanması için Osmanlı arşivlerinin de incelenmesi gerektiğine dikkat çekiyor. Agadezler geçmişte olduğu gibi günümüzde de Afrika bölgesinin en takdir edilen ve sayılan kabilesi. Osmanlı Türklerinin ve günümüzde Türkiye’nin bölgeye pozitif olarak yaklaşması ise Afrika’daki Türk sempatisini artırmış.







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